at the National Museum © bpk / Scala
Masterpieces of Italian Portraiture
The Gemäldegalerie—National Museums in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, have joined forces in organizing a major exhibition on the genesis of the Italian portrait. For Berlin, the Bode Museum presents itself as the ideal location to hold such an exhibition: on its opening in 1904, it was conceived by its founder, Wilhelm von Bode, as a ‘Renaissance Museum’ on the Museum Island. The Bode Museum will host the first stage of the exhibition, running until November 20, 2011, before it subsequently goes on show at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, from December 19, 2011 to March 18, 2012.
More than 150 key works, including paintings, drawings, medals and busts, are about to go on display for the first time together. The more than 50 lenders include the Uffizi in Florence, the Louvre in Paris and the National Gallery in London. Among the exhibition’s many highlights is Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Lady with an Ermine’ from the Czartoryski Collection, Cracow.
The exhibition highlights depictions of the appearance and personality of real people. Portraits of feminine beauty vie with portraits of generals, princes and humanists, offering us a fascinating insight into the age of the early Renaissance. At the heart of the exhibition stands the Italian Renaissance portrait. The Italian art of portraiture evolved under the influence of antique models. However, it was equally shaped by the innovations of the great Netherlandish painters. The history of the art of portraiture, from Pisanello up to Verrocchio, Botticelli, Bellini and Leonardo, is retold in a selection of magnificent and sensational key works, including paintings, sculptures, medals and drawings. The exhibition focuses both on the art produced at the Italian courts, as well as the development of the portrait in Florence and Venice.
A unique architectural and lighting concept, especially designed for the exhibition, takes into account the individual qualities of each exhibit in its presentation. Of crucial importance here is the aesthetic experience, both of the quality of the artworks and of the materials used in creating them.
The artistic diversity evident in these early portraits, the various roles the images served and their historical contexts all resonate with suspense. The Gemäldegalerie—National Museums in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York embarked on an intense collaboration to present this to the general public. Masterpieces from New York and the rich collections of the National Museums in Berlin, not just from the Gemäldegalerie itself but also from the Sculpture Collection, Kupferstichkabinett and Numismatic Collection, offer visitors an unprecedented insight into this epoch.
Furthermore, for the first time, the show in the Bode Museum also encompasses all media of Italian Renaissance portraiture—medals, drawings, sculptures and panel paintings. Portraits—either in the form of a painting, photograph and less often a medal—have become commonplace today, but between the 5th and 15th century independent portraits of individual people were rare and the exclusive reserve of rulers and historic figures. Only in the 15th century did it again become customary for artists on both sides of the Alps to produce independent portraits of men and women.
Today’s exhibition ‘Renaissance Faces’ pays homage to
Italy’s contribution to this first great age of European portraiture and
conveys a sense of the innovative ways in which artists responded to the
challenge of creating individual portraits and how they explored questions
of identity that arose as a result.*
The visitor’s gaze is then directed to the courts of Ferrara, Mantua, Bologna, Milan, Urbino, Naples and finally papal Rome. The circle is then completed in Venice, where a portrait tradition only established itself remarkably late in the century. In each section, works in all media are juxtaposed with each other to give visitors the chance to see for themselves how the various art forms mutually influenced each other with their own unique qualities.*
In a society dominated by family descent and social hierarchies, conventions were binding. And it is precisely these conventions that are depicted in profile portraits from 15th-century Italy. Profile portraits were equally popular as reliefs or paintings. Compared with the far more naturalistic art produced north of the Alps, which people in 15th-century Italy were definitely familiar with, this form of portrait seems at first a little surprising, as the Italian artists present the sitters in a soft light and at a slight angle to the picture plane. The sitters are seen standing either at a window or behind a parapet and gaze at the viewer. Sometimes a hand is seen resting on the edge of the painted frame. When looking at these images, it is clear that Italian portraits are not primarily concerned with achieving an accurate likeness, at least not in the conventional sense. Italian portraits do not so much reveal personality, rather convey social conventions and cultural identity.*
The profile portrait was frequently given such exceptional importance in Italy, because it largely drew from Roman coins and reliefs for inspiration. But the profile portrait has always been the most elementary form of capturing someone’s likeness. Informal, direct and frontal views have become so familiar to us in portraits today thanks to photography that we first have to be re-sensitized to the unique possibilities inherent in the profile portrait. For one, it makes it possible to objectify a person’s outer appearance and allows physiognomies to convey cultural meaning.
The pleasing aspect of a high forehead, the refinement or contemptuousness expressed in a raised brow, the aristocratic curve of a nose and the severity or gentleness of a chin and jaw line—all these are physiological characteristics that come to stand as emblems for beauty, rank and power.*
* Quoted from the exhibition catalogue
Bode Museum, Upper floor
Museum Island Berlin, Am Kupfergraben 1, 10117 Berlin
Opening times: Fri – Wed 10 a.m. – 6 p.m., Thur 10 a.m. – 10 p.m.
Service details and tickets available at: www.smb.museum/gesichter
Note: The exhibition catalogue, published by HIRMER in Munich, is available in English and German and provides a critical accompaniment to the project. Ed. Keith Christianson, Stefan Weppelmann 432 pages, 261 plates in colour and black-and-white, 20.3 × 25.4 cm, hardback; approximate retail price €47.50 (D), €48,90 (A), CHF 63.50 Available in the museum priced €29.90. ISBN 978-3-7774-3581-7
The organizers wish to thank the following lenders
Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst.
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister,
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main.
Kupferstichkabinett , Hamburger Kunsthalle.
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig.
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Besançon,
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Chambéry,
Musées de Châteauroux,
Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris,
Musée du Louvre, Paris.
The Duke of Devonshire and the Trustees of the Chatsworth Settlement,
National Gallery, London,
Victoria and Albert Museum, London,
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
Christ Church, Picture Gallery, Oxford,
The Royal Collection, Windsor.
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.
Accademia Carrara, Bergamo,
Musei Civici d’Arte Antica, Ferrara,
Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lett ere »La Colombaria«, Florenz,
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florenz,
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florenz,
Museo di Palazzo Rosso, Genua,
Museo di Sant’Agostino, Genua,
Civiche Raccolte Artistiche, Castello Sforzesco, Mailand,
Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Mailand,
Pinacoteca di Brera, Mailand,
Biblioteca Nazionale Vitt orio Emanuele III , Neapel,
Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Neapel,
Museo d’Arte Medioevale e Moderna, Musei Civici, Padua,
Museo Nazionale di San Matteo, Pisa,
Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino,
Galleria Giorgio Franchett i alla Ca’ d’Oro, Venedig,
Museo Correr, Fondazione Musei Civici, Venedig,
Museo dell’Opera, Palazzo Ducale, Fondazione Musei Civici, Venedig.
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien.
Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.
Szépmővészeti Múzeum, Budapest.
United States of America
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston,
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,
Denver Art Museum,
Detroit Institute of Arts,
The Frick Collection, New York,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
The Morgan Library and Museum, New York,
Philadelphia Museum of Art,
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C.,
Guardans Cambó Collection, Barcelona.
Dr. Stephen K. & Janie Woo Scher, New York.